Streptomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic primarily effective against gram-negative bacteria and Mycobacterium species. It is commonly used in cell culture media to prevent bacterial contamination. It has also been used to precipitate nucleic acids during protein purification techniques and to study mechanisms of Streptomycin resistance.
Aminoglycoside antibiotics are composed of amino groups attached to glycosides. They bind the 30s ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of the mRNA sequence and inhibition of translocation. Consequently, protein synthesis is inhibited. Resistance to this antibiotic is conferred through mutations in the rpsL gene.
Antibiotics are often used in clinical in vitro tests known as antimicrobial susceptibility tests or ASTs to determine their efficacy against certain bacterial species. They are tested against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria using panels, discs, and MIC strips by medical microbiologists. ASTs decrease the risk of using an antibiotic against bacteria exhibiting resistance to it, and the results are used in clinical settings to determine which antibiotic(s) to prescribe for various infections.
TESTED AGAINST BOTH SENSITIVE AND RESISTANT CELLS.